Getting rescued by the USCG (training)

USCG rescues

Last week, I covered how to use a VHF and what steps it takes to call for help. This week will be a continuation of the process, and what it actually looks like from a kayaker’s perspective.

A little background to this training: A few years ago, I had organized a joint training mission involving a local paddle club and the USCG. Our training proceeded with a pre-brief with members of the Coast Guard and the paddle club members who would be on-water.  Safety was our main concern during the day, and we had a code word which would be used, if the Coast Guard were truly needed elsewhere. During the planning – it was understood we would not use flares, no PLB, or actual electronic rescue devices (for concerns of citizens believing this was truly an emergency) and would transmit the Mayday call via VHF channel 72.  All four kayakers were ACA level 3, and higher coastal instructors – had numerous safety/rescue devices, PFD’s, clothing suitable for immersion, sea kayaks, and skill sets appropriate for the conditions/environment.

The four paddlers launched from an alternative site because of time constraints and proceeded to head out past the pier head. Moments into the paddle, we realized this would not be a flat water and smooth training experience, however would add to the realism of a rescue. Conditions were: waves 2 ½ to 3 footers, nice rollers from time to time, winds constant around 15 mph from the ESE, Air temp around 75, water temp mid 60’s. We paddled about a mile away from the pier head, and just within viewing for the folks on Neshotah beach. We weighed out the options to either conduct the training away from the beach and attempt to maintain our position, or face additional broaching waves and winds which may have increased the safety factor.  We chose to conduct a safe affair. Our scenario involved one kayaker getting ‘injured’, losing consciousness and fracturing her arm as a power boat ran into her and ejecting her from her yak.

During the post-briefing of all the members involved, here are a few interesting noteworthy topics we encountered and will be perfecting.

  • While one VHF is worth the weight of gold during any paddle adventure, two or more is best. I could transmit the Mayday, however could not receive CG replies. Luckily, we had three VHF radios with us. I could not imagine just how any paddler could signal what kind of emergency they may have without communication.
  • As mentioned, our ‘victim’ had been hit by a power boat, knocked unconscious, and ejected from her yak. The decision to keep her in the water and maintain an open airway was a personal choice – for the fear of C-spine injury and further injury, we did not attempt a H.O.G (Hand of God) rescue, or place her on the decks of the two other kayaks. The kayaker who rescued the swimmer, had to store his paddle, and hold onto the shoulder straps of the PFD of the swimmer. Her face was away from the oncoming waves. It was somewhat unbalanced for the rescuer to maintain center balance of his yak, as broaching waves and winds continued. The third yak clipped on a tow rope to get the swimmer’s yak out of the way. Even if we did do a H.O.G. rescue on the swimmer, the CG would have to once again remove the injured kayaker from the kayak (as they manually hoisted her onto the CG vessel). There was an option for the CG to use a dive team and stokes littler to extract an unconscious swimmer.
  • Once CG boat arrived, swimmer had to be passed off to the crew, and lifted out of the water. Additional information of accident was provided, and swimmers known medical history provided (which was unknown) – although this would be normally known for a professional outfitter group paddle, or if your friends who you paddle with normally share that kind of information. Might be best if we all carry some sort of ICE (In Case of Emergency), brief medical history, and meds somewhere on our person/inside a pocket of the PFD.
  • Ideally, the rescuer and swimmer stay together and await the CG rescue boat. If additional kayakers are in group, CG desires the rest to stay out of the immediate area of swimmer and rescuer.
  • With conditions present, would it have been wiser for a second person to stabilize the rescuer by rafting up? What would the situation be had it only been two paddlers, one being a swimmer, and the rescuer still had to make a VHF call, maintain contact with the unconscious swimmer, and stay upright? In flat water with no conditions – I would expect there is a totally different response and outcome.
  • As noted, there was no use of flares, PLB (personal locator beacon), or other electrical devices. We did use a laser flare, paddles and hand signals to dictate our location. Although we did not have orange smoke to mark our position – this may have been a great option for a daytime rescue. Air horns and whistles would have been impossible to hear, since we couldn’t even hear the sirens of the Coast Guard boat. Once again, thinking how this could be accomplished with a solo rescuer.
  • Towing an empty yak (from the rescued kayaker) with an extended rope can be problematic with conditions. Although this worked well, the empty kayak had a mind of its own – Careful attention and adjustments were made to the length of rope once passing the pier head and conditions decreased.


Another aspect of a rescue is working with a helicopter crew. A couple of years ago at the East Coast Paddle Festival (Charleston, SC), I had also taken part in a similar training exercise. This one was involving a USCG rescue helicopter, and talking to the crew as they were trying to “find” us. We communicated with them via VHF, and vectored (help guide them into our position) the helicopter to our exact location. When they were close enough for visual confirmation, we used a various assortment of visual ques to pinpoint our location.

Both aspects of training provide knowledge only gained from actually conducting this practice. As a kayaker, one should always seek knowledge about what could happen – and how to effectively take actions in the worse case situations. Hopefully you will never have to enact any of these rescues as a real world emergencies. But, understanding this process may make it a bit easier.


*** Personal note:  A BIG thanks to all who made this training special *****

For the Paddler Within…

How to make that all important call

Using a VHF radio (or otherwise called a marine radio) can be a lifesaving device for when you really need help on the water. Understanding how to use it and who to call may just save your life.

VHF Hand held radio

What exactly is a VHF radio?

It is a communication device for boaters. It is a means in which boaters can communicate with harbors, locks, bridges, marinas, other boaters and summoning rescue services.  For seagoing vessels, these radios are permanently mounted, for kayakers – these are handheld devices. There are several makes and models available to the public, finding one which works best for you is a personal decision. Many Marine hand held models are waterproof – and some actually will float.  Besides making calls, many of the models will have a weather channels, providing pretty accurate condition reports.Mainly used by kayakers who hit the open waters (Great Lakes/Oceans or any water monitored by water rescue services) – this should be an essential piece of equipment before heading out.

How do I use it?

Since each model is slightly different from the next – the basic functions are quite similar. It is always best to fully charge your VHF before heading out to the next paddle destination. As well as recharging it after you have returned. The battery life varies, but based on personal experiences can last for at least a week (unit turned on, moderate use during a 6-hour paddle day, and then turned off when not used). If possible, bring the charging base, or extra batteries to ensure you have enough juice for the trip. There is normally a knob to twist the unit on/off, and there is usually a ‘chirp’ heard as it powers on. There are numerous channels to use if you wish to communicate with others in your kayak group (once you pre-arrange this channel with each other during the pre-launch brief). Majority of regions within the US have specific channels which can be used freely by civilians – and others which are either commercial use, or predetermined agencies. Follow this link for channels in your area. Once a channel has been established for communications, bring the speaker towards your mouth and push and hold the transmit button, clearly and calmly send your message, release once done. Much like using a walkie-talkie.

Emergency channels

Channel 16 is the channel to use if needing to make an emergency distress call. Normally, this channel should be monitored while on the water – as there may be important messages by the Coast Guard, or other boaters who need assistance. Traffic (communications) on this frequency has top priority, and should never be used as a ‘party line’.

Channel 9 is used mainly for ship to ship and ship to coast communications.


There is limited range on all VHF radios – and depending on many factors (transmitter power, topographical features, and your antenna height. VFH’s are basically a line of sight communication device – if there is any kind of interference between the two, the signal may not be heard. This may mean one may need to move to higher ground, or move out from a secluded cove to be able to transmit/receive.

How to communicate

VHF mayday sticker

If needing to transmit on channel 16, there are a few simple procedures to ensure you have proper procedures – and using proper lingo terms for the situation. Each one of these is repeated three times – to get the attention of other boaters.

Pan-Pan: This is a call in which a vessel is declaring an urgent situation which is not an immediate threat to either the vessel or the people on board. Examples of this, in which you may hear is: lost of navigational equipment, mechanical issues, need a tow, or any other non-life threatening emergencies.

Sécurité: This is an informational broadcast message (usually a USCG message to boaters), with additional information provided on another channel, which will be provided by the issuing department. An example of this could be a dense fog advisory, and vessels will alert others as they leave or enter a narrow channel or harbor. Or this could also be used to alert other vessels of large floating debris at a specific location.

Mayday: This is for serious events which suggests a potential loss of life, or a life-threatening situation.  This will initiate immediate response by the Coast Guard and other agencies. Falsely reporting a Mayday, or using this channel as a open “chat channel” is strictly forbidden – and yes, they can triangulate your location if you abuse this channel.


Hopefully, there will never be a situation in which you will need to activate a Mayday call. Best advice I can provide to you is, practice making this call at home (without turning on the VHF) with another person. Print out the blue USCG form above and laminate it and bring it with you. Work with the nearest USCG station on your radio calls, or find groups who train with the USCG during joint missions. In one of the upcoming blogs, I will show a video how I had worked with a local USCG as we called in a Mayday and a “rescue” during a training mission.


For the Paddler Within….

Trip report – The Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin

Paddle destination: Horicon Marsh (southern aspect)


Launch/Land locations:

Horicon Marsh put in

Launch – Green Head Road N8600 Green Head Rd, Mayville, WI

Land – One Mile Island Trail Head and parking 204 N Nebraska St, Horicon, WI


Type of environment:

Hoircon Marsh

Did you know Horicon Marsh is the largest freshwater cattail marsh in the United States? The marsh itself covers approximately 32,000 miles – majority of it is water. There are several small islands throughout the area – some are easier to walk upon than others (depending on water height/recent rain). The put in at Green Head has a rather large parking area – more like a dirt road with ample parking on the side of this road. This is a dead-end road, and there is a cul-de-sac which makes navigation with a trailer a bit easier. The launch has a gradual grade into the water, and you may need to get your feet wet. This section of water is the Rock river, and following it west will eventually lead you into the Horicon. One may see some smaller boats with trolling motors through this section of river, although rare. Traveling along this stretch, the trees and vegetation is pretty numerous and offers nice protection from the winds. As one exits this forest of trees, the water area opens up and the scenery changes dramatically. Didn’t really notice any current while on the water, until nearing the take-out area near Horicon. It was fairly gentile as it flows south towards the city. The take out at One mile Island, is slightly tucked away on the western side of the main channel. This parking lot is rather sizable and can hold easily 40+ cars. Total one-way distance is about 8 miles.


Horicon group leaving

One of the biggest hazards is the size of this place, and the ever-changing water levels throughout the year. This can be a unique maze, if one decides to venture away from the main flowage. I would highly recommend downloading this navigation map to aid your progression. A compass, GPS, or other tracking device will also be helpful. There are landmarks one can see from the seat of the yak – but the marsh can act as a cat tail maze at times. Once one gets nearly midway in to the marsh, a water tower in Horicon can be seen and can be used as a general reference point. Best suggestion I have is to go with someone who knows that marsh VERY well – or even go with the Horicon Marsh visitors center – as they offer guided tours throughout the year.

The navigation map provided displays the paddle route one should take, there are marked signs on this path, however at times can be rather difficult to see.

If it is a windy day, or chances for a breezy day – some may find it a challenge doing this route. The cat tails and scattered islands only offer slight protection.

There are the occasional tour boats which follow the main channel going north to south – these may be a good reference point to follow, should you need to find your way to the take out.

Horicon Marsh


Abundant wildlife in all aspects. So great in fact, during water fowl season approaches, hunters enjoy this place. Depending on the time of year one paddles this area will dictate what is seen and heard. The times I have gone – there was migration of spring birds and other water fowl moving into the area, and at others, the cat tails were very tall and plentiful – at times obscuring distant views.

Horicon Marsh

Skill level:

If with someone knowledgeable about the area – this is a great beginner paddle when conditions are perfect. If going the entire distance from Green Head to Horicon, this may be quite the workout on windy days. Although there are a few islands in the heart of the marsh, majority of them have a solid ground (look for very established trees) and can be good resting place. Because of the chance for facing winds, and distance of this paddle, I would not recommend kayaks shorter than 10 to 12 feet.

Horicon Marsh

Other notes:

Definitely check out the Horicon Education and visitors center while you are there. There is such great information about the geological design of the marsh, how the marsh was used throughout the years, the mistakes humans learned when they attempted to change the landscape, and what the future of the area holds.


For the Paddler Within….

How to be a conscientious kayaker

As the season opener approaches here in the Northwoods and more kayaks are seen on the roof racks – let’s remember we are ambassadors of the water. We share the waters with humans and nature. The ability to return in the future to these destinations is everyone’s responsibility.

typical boat launch

Upon your arrival to the water destination or boat launch, ensure you are parked in the correct location and not taking up a boat trailer spot. Some boat launches have launch fees – which may or may not affect you, the kayaker. Read the postings for their descriptions of what craft warrant a fee. Some boat launches I have been to charge innertubes, and inflatable rafts the same fee as a power boat. Personally, I do not understand how a inflatable raft can deteriorate a boat launch like a 3000 pound power boat.. but that is for another debate. If you really like that body of water, majority of fee based locations have an annual rate (which is much more cost effective). Boat launches act as a first come, first serve basis and there is a unload/load process which is commonly understood to all. Since you had paid your fee, you have as much right to use the ramp as the next person. Try to launch and land as quickly as you can – but always ensure you are safely doing that. It is best to convey to the fellow boaters your intentions to come in and use the boat launch.

oh no hazard

Besides the normal obstacles and obstructions on the waters (piers, strainers, rocks, etc..) there are other concerns are on the waters. Folks fishing – When possible, make verbal contact with the person fishing – and try to see where the line is in the water. If able to stop, wait for them to reel in the line (if you know you will be very close to the end of the line), pass quickly and let them know you just say a big fish just upstream. Hunters (waterfowl) are a bit more difficult to see – being they are usually camouflaged and hiding behind those blinds. One of the more notable signs of these folks out and about would be the constant gun shots – or decoys floating around (why is that duck just sitting there???) If you believe you are near one of the blinds, stay clear. If you accidentally come up on one (especially paddling along the shoreline) change your heading away from them.

USCG navigation rules

Power craft at speed, have restrictive movement. They need to have some time before making quick positional changes. We on the other hand, can maneuver and swing our kayak in a different heading in a fraction of the time. As a paddler, one should have their head on a swivel when sharing the waters with power boats – and be aware of their surroundings at all times. Power boats may not see a single kayak in the distance, it is your responsibility to make directional changes first to avoid head on collisions. Paddling with friends in a group makes it easier for others to see you (since you are now a larger element).  The USGC sets the nautical rules of the road, and with other agencies enforcing the rules. Rules regarding kayaks are location dependent and change based on location – inside a harbor, in a channel, vs the open water. Let’s explore passing other vessels – and getting passed. There is a hierarchy of vessels and a ‘pecking order’ in which we are suppose to give way (to change direction) to avoid collision with another vessel.  Which kinda look like this: kayaks must give way to sail boats, which give way to power boats, which give way to Military or law boats – which have the ultimate freedom. Overtaking (the process in which a boat passes one from behind) may be done from either side. Normally you may hear a blast from the boat behind you, this signals they will be passing on the left – two blasts mean they will be passing on the right. I can’t say I have ever had this happen to me, either the river was wide enough, in a no wake zone, or I was close enough to shore. If there is a boat coming head on in front of you, the most common scenario is for boat boats to turn to starboard (the right) and pass the other.

boater safety tips

Inside the harbors and channels they follow a specific rule: Red Right Returning. These are marked with floating red and green objects, which can be either a buoy, can, panel, or nuns). Traffic flows to the right within this channel. Crossing a marked channel is much like crossing an intersection (although there is no crosswalk sign or button to push). When one comes upon a channel, slow or come to a stop, look both ways and all around you for any vessels, if none cross the channel with a quickness. When with a group, paddle together and try to stick together as a single unit (makes you a larger visible object.

leave no trace

While on the water, please do your part to ensure our waterways remain healthy. Follow the leave no trace process by not littering, pick up floating debris when you come upon it, and don’t litter – preform a small role in the big process. This notion applies to both water and land. If you are like me, I do a little kayak camping from time to time. I like think I am a ninja kayak camper….. Nobody knew I had been there, but yet I was.

canoe portage

There isn’t always public land along the water for us to get out or land wherever we want. Private property should be respected, even if it isn’t clearly marked by signs. If there is a need for a portage, look for portage signs, and follow the path. There are special occasions for getting out on private property – if there is an injury, damage to your kayak which needs immediate attention, or seeking safe harbor (when weather conditions could result in either of the two). The kayaker should attempt to make contact with the owner and notify them of the situation. Most owners will be more than happy to assist and have a better appreciation for you.

Swim area marker

When landing your kayak (if it is a location from your put-in), pay attention to the arrival location. There may be a dedicated swimmer section attached to a public beach. This area would be well marked and usually roped off. Attempt to bring kayaks out of the way of fellow beach goers, if possible, place the kayaks on a grassy area and off the beach. Everyone will be happier to share the beach with each other.

boat clean up station

After landing, there may be some unwanted passengers still on your kayak – I am talking about invasive species. These are non-native aquatic plants and animals which can be accidentally transported and introduced to other bodies of water. Once introduced in to different waters, they are nearly impossible to be eliminated. Ways in which one can assist the spreading is to remove these prior to leaving the water. Drain as much water as possible, use a sponge to wipe of the hull. When available, wash your boat at a  fresh water cleaning station, or to really kill these guys, a mix of bleach and water (one TBSP to one Gallon of Water) sprayed on the kayak will do them in. It is best to let the kayak fully dry a couple of days before placing it back into another body of water.


Being a responsible boater is everyone’s responsibility – either powered by gasoline or by granola. Be observant, predictable, and respectful. Enjoy ever river and be a ninja kayaker.


For the Paddler Within….

Getting the paddler’s itch?


Frozen rivers and early season kayaking #silentwake

As the spring thaw FINALLY shows up in the northern states, paddlers of all levels want to hit the water. Many of these paddlers, have no concept of the dangers of early season kayaking. Every year, we all hear various news reports of poor decision-making instances or worse yet, fatalities. Majority of these recorded kayak related events happen to paddlers who don’t have the knowledge, the safety gear, or the proper kayak. The most dishearten aspect to these occurrences – it could have been avoided. Today, I will cover cold weather-related injuries and proper paddle clothing for the late winter/early spring season.

Let’s take a look at a typical day these problematic events take place. It’s early March, the snow is melting, the rivers are up, ice is slowly leaving the launches/shorelines. The air temps are in the 40’s bright and sunny day, little winds, and calm waters….. So, where is the harm in that? Well, as mentioned in a previous blog about trip planning – one also must take in consideration another other factor – Water Temperature. Without proper paddle clothing, cold water can and will KILL. Even with the proper paddling clothing, one can feel the chill of the water – but it extends the survival time and increases chances surviving the cold water. This is assuming one has a 100% effective self-rescue technique, or their paddle buddy can provide an assisted rescue – and has practiced these rescues in this type of environment.

How cold is too cold to paddle and what should I wear?

That is really best answered with this thought perspective – dress as if you WILL have to do a wet exit, and be in the water for at least 10 minutes. Plus, the additional time paddling back to your car – or a place to get out of those wet clothes. One of the best items to extend your paddling season – as well as survivability – is to wear a dry suit. Dry suits are basically a full body suit which has [usually] latex gaskets at the neck and wrists. These are designed to be fairly tight against the skin – and act as a water barrier from touching the rest of your body (or one can think of them as a human sized Ziplock bag). Dry suits work by keeping the water out and off your body – but offer no real insulating properties. To help insulate, one wears base layers (think fleece-like materials, Morino wool, or long johns made from polypropylene).  One way to grasp if you are going to be under dressed for the water temperature is to actually stand chest deep in the water you are going to paddle. You will quickly realize if you are under dressed, for the conditions – but close to the shoreline to make adjustments before you paddle. One can over dress for the occasion just as easily – frequent stops or a slower paddle pace will aid in the heat build-up (along with consumption of hydrating fluids).

Cold weather paddle gear #silentwake

Dry suits will offer the protection to your core body and most of those vital organs… but, what about the hands, head and feet? There is numerous specific paddling clothing out there for the cooler weather. Many scuba dive shops have these items in stock. Materials made out of neoprene is usually the first choice to offer protection from the water, since it has some repelling factors (the skin can still get wet and cool – but it offers a level of protection). There are thickness levels from the lowest 0.5 mm (65 to 75 degree water), 6 mm (water from 45 to 50 degrees) and upwards to 10 mm (scuba cold water dives). As the thickness increases, the more protection they offer, but mobility is restricted. For some ideas of what to wear besides a dry or a wet suit, may I offer reading this?

What happens if I do fall into cold water?

Cold water injuries can happen in any water below 60 degrees. Living in Wisconsin, the water in smaller inland lakes, and rivers will may reach 60 degrees around May (sometimes), Lake Michigan usually gets to that temperature early July, sometimes late June – Yes, there have been ice floats in the waters on Memorial Day. This is all weather dependent and many continuous days above 70 will aid in warming that water.

What are some types of Cold weather injuries:


  • Chilblain is a non-freezing injury that can occur after 1-5 hours in cold-wet conditions when skin temperature is > 32°F/0°C. The most commonly affected areas are the dorsal surface of the fingers, but the ears, face, and other exposed skin are also areas of occurrence. There are no lasting effects from chilblains.


  • Frostbite accounts for the largest number of injuries each year and occurs when tissue temperature falls below ~28-30°F. Frostbite can occur suddenly due to contact to cold metal or super-cooled liquids such as alcohol, fuel or antifreeze or can develop over time due to prolonged cold exposure. Frostbite is most common in exposed skin such as the hands, nose, ears, and cheeks but can also occur in the feet or in the hands while wearing gloves due to inadequate insulation and reduced skin blood flow.


  • Hypothermia is defined as a body core temperature below 95°F/35°C. Hypothermia is usually characterized as mild, moderate, or severe, based on body core temperature. Hypothermia occurs when heat loss is greater than heat production. This can occur suddenly, such as during partial or total immersion in cold water, or over hours or days, such as during extended operations or survival situations.


  • Vigorous shivering is typically present. Shivering may decrease or cease as core temperature continues to fall.
  • Onset of hypothermia is typically associated with the so-called “umbles”, the grumbles, mumbles, stumbles and fumbles that increase as cold affects muscle and nerve function.
  • Symptoms of hypothermia consist of confusion, sleepiness, slurred speech, shallow breathing, weak pulse, low blood pressure, change in behavior and/or poor control over body movements/slow reactions.

Stress upon the body:

Let’s understand what happens when a paddler falls into the cold water. There is a simple concept called the 1-10-1 rule, which is the current thought process among instructors. The first thing which will commonly happen is a cold shock reflex – a gasp from the mouth and the escaping of precious oxygen. We all have been there, when the water temperature in the shower goes from warm to bitter cold. We jump back, shriek, and say a few choice words. Instinctually, we move away from this, and luckily, we are in an oxygen rich environment while in the shower. However, many times when one falls into the water it is not intentional and preparations to hold your breath are seldom. Within the first minute, your body reacts violently to this immense temperature change. In order to conserve the vital organs, the body works in overdrive. The brain reacts by releasing various chemicals into the blood steam. Blood vessels begin constricting to the extremities. Hyperventilation (excessive breathing) takes place to aid the increased heart rate which is attempting to pump the blood to your body. If one is not wearing a life jacket (which aids in keeping your head afloat the water), the amount of energy expended -attempting to keep your head above the water- during this initial minute can enhance preexisting health problems (heart/lungs/circulation).

If healthy enough, had previously practiced cold weather wet exits (controlled environment), and wearing proper paddle clothing/life vest- your chances for surviving increase dramatically, However as I mentioned previously, even with this proper clothing, one can still feel the coolness of the water, but at least we are not completely wet and cold. After that initial one minute of cold shock, your body goes into survival mode. This is your window for getting back into the kayak. If alone, whatever solid self-rescue skill you have, you must pick that one – this is not the time to test out a new rescue. Concentrate on the task at hand, make this quick and effective use of your time. The longer you are in that cold water your ability to concentrate, effective use of your fingers, arms and legs decreases. If you can not get back into your kayak after two attempts, call for help! If the shoreline is close enough for a two minute or less swim – swim to shore without your kayak. These are critical minutes before the body goes into the next stages. If paddling with a buddy the dry one must remain calm, provide clear, concise, and simple instructions during an assisted rescue.

Depending on what paddle clothing you are wearing, water temperature, and how long you have been in the cold water will dictate your survival rate. Hypothermia will begin shortly after that second stage (the 10-minute window). If separated from your kayak (or you can’t see it) get into a fetal position to help conserve energy and loss of body heat. A person has approximately one hour to remain conscious before extreme hypothermia leads to death.

Once able to rescue yourself from the above, seek warm shelter, get out of the wet clothing immediately and into dry clothing. If needed, seek additional professional medical attention. When paddling with friends – have them help you get out of those clothes and warm up. Have a buddy system ‘group hug’ to increase the body heat of the victim.

Early season paddling can be just as enjoyable as any other time of the year, when extra precautions are taken. Taking those precautions are not totally infallible, but offers additional time and protection when in the elements – and future experiences on the water.Stay safe, my friends.


For the Paddler Within….